By Herman L. Bennett
Полное название:"Africans in Colonial Mexico : absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole attention, 1570–1640"
В этом исследовании, автор обнаружил много новой информации о жизни рабов и свободных чернокожих в Мексике и как их жизнь была регулированна правительством.
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Additional resources for Africans in Colonial Mexico 1570–1640
Most Africans staffed Spanish households as domestics or toiled in an urban economy dedicated to the consumer behavior of Spaniards, an arena from which the Spanish Crown repeatedly sought to exclude indigenous peoples. African slaves in the urban centers of New Spain ful¤lled multiple roles for their owners. In Mexico City, they represented both labor and symbols of the status of their owners. 31 Thomas Gage, an Englishman and Dominican friar who in 1625 visited Mexico City, observed how the gallants of this city shew themselves, some on horseback, and most in coaches, daily about four of the clock in the afternoon in a pleasant shady ¤eld called la Alameda .
By midcentury, commercial agriculture, livestock estates, and the mining industry essentially relied on a multiracial workforce composed of draft labor, enslaved Africans, and salaried workers. This variegated labor force profoundly shaped the composition of the community, the experiences of its members, and the formation of culture in New Spain. At midcentury, Africans were so numerous in New Spain that it alarmed the viceroy, Luís de Velasco. ”48 Despite Velasco’s warning, Spaniards annually imported over 500 Africans into New Spain.
After 1610, Jalapa’s planters were not aggressive buyers of enslaved Africans. Jalapa’s withdrawal from the international slave trade effected a social and demographic transformation among its resident labor force. 85 The demographic patterns on the Santisíma Trinidad sugar plantation vividly illustrate the precipitous decline of African slavery in New Spain. 86 By 1670, the number of slaves had increased but now represented a smaller percentage of the estate labor force. Meanwhile, the number of free mulattos and persons of African-Indian heritage (pardos) had increased to such an extent that they, along with the indigenous peoples, ¤lled the ranks of the wage labor force.