By Eugene Winograd, Ulric Neisser
Reminiscences of unforeseen and emotional occasions (called ''flashbulb'' thoughts) have lengthy been the topic of theoretical hypothesis. The fourth Emory Symposium on Cognition introduced jointly everybody who has performed study on thoughts of the Challenger explosion, that allows you to achieve higher knowing of the phenomenon of flashbulb thoughts: How do flashbulb stories examine with other forms of reminiscences? Are they surprisingly actual, or specially long-lived? Do they replicate the job of a unique mechanism, as has been urged? The publication additionally addresses extra normal problems with impact and accuracy: Do emotion and arousal enhance reminiscence? if this is the case, below what stipulations? by means of what physiological mechanisms?
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Additional info for Affect and Accuracy in Recall: Studies of 'Flashbulb' Memories
In contrast, Bohannon (1988) regarded information about the news event itself (in his studies of the Challenger explosion) to be "non-flashbulb information," particularly suitable as a control of the flashbulb because it is learned at roughly the same time. However, the news event is not personally experienced like the flashbulb situation. It is therefore not episodic in Tulving's (1972) sense but might rather be considered semantic or generic information, as Bohannon states himself. If this is granted, the comparison confounds the two memory categories and is therefore irrelevant to the continuity issue (cf.
1 = Every day; 5 = Less than every year. 1 = No prior events; 5 = More than a year before. 1 = No involvement; 5 = Strong involvement. ' 1 = Very bad; 5 = Very good. several flashbulb memory experiments; moreover, the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl took place; the United States bombed Libya; Kurt Waldheim's Nazi past was revealed and he was elected president of Austria; President Marcos of the Philippines was overthrown; and Denmark played in the soccer World Cup finals in Mexico. With such news in the "ordinary" sample, the issue of continuity with flashbulb memories would seem to get a rather conservative test.
Such "mislocations" are common in autobiographical memory. In his Watergate testimony, for example, John Dean frequently mislocated President Nixon's remarks: Things that had actually been said at Time A were falsely attributed to a different conversation at Time B (Neisser, 1981). Another example: In A Collection of Moments, Esther Salaman (1970) documents a clear case of a vivid childhood recollection assigned to the wrong setting. Memories do not carry intrinsic time tags or cross-references.